SECOND RECRUIT TRAINING BATTALION MARINE CORPS RECRUIT DEPOT PARRIS ISLAND, SC
U.S. RIFLE CAL. 30 M-1
The functioning of the M-1 Rifle consists basically of two movements: (1) The Rearward and (2) theForward movements. There are ten steps to the rear movement: (1) Ignition, (2) Action of the gas, (3) Movement of the Operating Rod to the rear, (4) Unlocking of the bolt, (5) Withdrawal of the firing pin, (6) Extraction of the empty cartridge, (7) Ejection of the empty cartridge, (8) Cocking of the hammer, (9) Action of the follower, (10) Termination of the rearward movement.
(1) Ignition: When the rifle is loaded and the bolt is closed the hammer spring is compressed and the trigger lugs are engaged in the hammer hooks holding the hammer in the cocked position. Pressure is then applied to the trigger, the trigger lugs are disengaged from the hammer hooks, and the striker then protrudes from the face of the bolt and strikes the cartridge there by igniting it.
(2) Action of the gas: When the bullet passes the gas port some of the gases escape into the gas cylinder. The gas strikes the piston with sufficient force to drive the operating rod to the rear compressing the operating rod spring.
(3) Movement of the operating rod to the rear: The initial movement of the operating rod to the rear imparts no motion to the bolt for the first 5/l6ths of an inch. The operating lug on the bolt merely slides in the straight section of the recess in the operating rod. This delay in the initial movement of the operating rod permits the bullet to leave the muzzle, thus clearing the enormous chamber pressure in the barrel and chamber before the bolt is opened.
(4) Unlocking the bolt: After the initial movement, the cam surface of the recess in the operating rod contacts the operating lug camming it up, rotating the bolt counter clockwise and disengaging the locking lugs from their corresponding locking recesses, in the receiver.
(5) Withdrawal of the firing pin: Rotation of the bolt also cams the hammer back from the firing pin and withdraws the firing pin into the bolt.
(6) Extraction of the empty cartridge: The operating rod continues to travel to the rear, carrying with the bolt, which slides along the receiver, the empty cartridge is carried from the chamber by the extractor.
(7) Ejection of the empty cartridge: The base of the cartridge case is continually pressed against the ejector, when the cartridge case clears the mouth of the breech the ejector throws the empty round up and to the right of the receiver.
(8) Cocking of the hammer: The rear end of the bolt rides over the hammer, forcing it back, compressing the hammer spring and comes to rest near the end of the receiver.
(9) Action of the follower: While the bolt is at its extreme rearward position the top cartridge is uncovered. The follower actuated by the follower arm and the follower rod which transmits this pressure from the operating rod spring, forces the cartridge upward in the clip so that the top cartridge is in the path of the bolt.
(10) Termination of the rearward movement: The rearward movement of the operating rod terminates when the rear end of its board section contacts the front face of the receiver.